The 18th century saw the rise of the Royal Society of London, the mind-blowing institution that still exists today. RSPL was founded in 1685 by Thomas Jefferson, and its members included such luminaries as Isaac Newton, David Hume, and Thomas Jefferson. In the early nineteenth century, the Society of Friends, a Presbyterian denomination, was founded by John Wesley and in 1829, The American Philosophical Society was founded by Joseph Needham and William Penn. In 1832, the American Philosophical Society was renamed the American Philosophical Society, and by 1855, it was officially a private foundation.
The earliest trips were conducted by the British clergy and the wealthy wealthy children of the elite. Such trips were conducted by the Earl of Derby, who was the most famous of the British aristocracy, and by William Penn, a wealthy merchant and philanthropist. It was a very public affair. The first formal "breakfast" was held at the Hotel-de-Ville in Paris (see above). The French aristocracy's fascination with the British lifestyle and the British aviator, Edward Jenner, indirectly led to the need for a separate British "breakfast" for the aristocracy, a ritual to which a number of elite youth from England and elsewhere contributed. The British "breakfast" is sometimes called "The Mailing Club" for its London location.
American philosophical society
The original Mailing Club was formed in London in the 1830s as the "Browse Club" — a precursor to the International British Army Club — and included many of the heads of state and aristocrats of the day. The success of these trips was due in large part to the success of the nation's educational system, which was the first in the world to provide compulsory college education. The history of the Ciceronian trips is a fascinating chapter in the history of the British Empire. A few of the most notable persons who took part are: Sir Francis FitzGerald, comedian and actor Sir Peter Jackson Sir Charles Clarendon Lord Elgin, Lord of Kildare Lord John Russell Lord Russell, Baron Russell No.
64-40-6 (from the list above) A Ciceronian trip to Africa is also mentioned in an 1869 letter to The Times by the South African State Minister for Education, Professor Henry Calvert: "In the first instance, the young men of the Ciceronian Order from the Northern Colonies have taken the trip to Africa. A few years after the establishment of the US Army in 1861, several young men from the Maryland and Virginia troops were asked to go to France and Belgium to learn military tactics. These young men were assigned as a unit to train French Civil Guards and, one year later, to fight with them. The Montgomery GI Bill in 1862 provided for the return of veterans who had served in the Union Army and the Confederate Army, though the exact number who enlisted in the Confederate Army is not known. The first written account of these trips, "The Lone Ranger," appeared in the August 1863 issue of The Civil War, and the first officially published photo of the group, which was taken by a Union soldier, appeared in the January 1863 issue of The Military Review. The trip to France was one of several designed to "educate" and "train" the French Civil Guard and to provide them with military experience and equipment. In America, pilgrimages were a vital part of the new American way of life. In the new colonies, young men and women were encouraged to take their heroines on their journeys, which were often more elaborate than they would have chosen.
Train french civil
Most pilgrimages were short, lasting only several days in duration, and took place in either a single city or village. The last American pilgrim to the Holy Land was the young Scott, who died in Jerusalem in 1842. He had been one of the first to set foot in the Holy Land, and his death marked the end of a long-standing tradition.
On the Continent, however, pilgrimages were much more elaborate, and included extravagant, multi-day excursions of up to 10 days, or even longer. In the 1820s, Theodor W. E. Schleiermacher, a German-born German physician, travelled to the United States to conduct research on the effects of the opium poppy on the body. He became so fascinated with the drug that he coined the name "opium poppy" to describe it and was the first to describe the effects of opium to the general public.
Although Schleiermacher was not an opium addict, he did leave behind an extensive collection of scientific papers describing the effects of the opium poppy. "The opium poppy is a valuable plant," Schleiermacher wrote in the journal Pharmacia Historica in 1825. "Its value is in the fact that it produces a very strong and pretty mellow tranquilizing effect… It can be used in children, and it produces no unpleasant effect if the quantity is given in small doses. In the United States, many of these youth traveled to the South American continent to study the traditional forms of dance and music. Some of these students went on to pursue other fields of study, such as medicine, law, and business.
In 1813, for example, several students from the University of Pittsburgh accompanied their teacher, William Mallory, to Argentina. The students quickly became well known and were often invited to travel to Europe for special dance and music lessons. The trip was a financial boon to the city of Pittsburgh, and many of the students soon became millionaires. In Europe, a number of European youths also traveled to the United States to study dance and music. In 1816, for example, four students of the University of Ghent traveled to the United States to study dancing. By the 1840's, many of these dance students were traveling overseas to study the traditional forms of dance and music.